Like you, your feline friend has a heart with four chambers: two on the top called atria and two on the bottom called ventricles. Cardiomyopathy, making up two-thirds of all heart conditions diagnosed in cats, typically affects the left ventricle. This condition can lead to blood clots, congestive heart failure, and even sudden death.
Unfortunately, cats in the early stages of cardiomyopathy – and many other feline heart disorders – often do not present any symptoms. Further complicating matters, most cats mask pain very well. The more you learn about heart disease in cats now, the better you can care for your favorite kitty companion throughout their life.
Feline heart disorders fall into two groups: congenital and acquired.
Congenital disorders are present at birth and include defects such as heart valve malformations and holes in the heart. These conditions are extremely rare. As the term implies, acquired disorders develop over a cat's lifespan.
Examples include high blood pressure, feline myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), and feline aortic thromboembolism (FATE), which is the result of blood clots. By far, the most prevalent acquired feline heart disorder is cardiomyopathy.
From the Latin roots cardio ("heart"), myo ("muscle"), and pathy ("disease"), cardiomyopathy refers to any disease where the heart muscle itself is damaged. There are three main types:
HCM is most common, and it often develops with no explanation other than a suspected hereditary link. Underlying causes could include thyroid disease, high blood pressure, and anemia. Certain breeds are predisposed to the condition, including Maine Coons, Persians, Ragdolls, and some American Shorthairs. Like all acquired heart diseases, HCM generally affects middle-aged and senior cats, but any time you observe symptoms in your cat regardless of age, seek veterinary care immediately.
With heart disease in cats, life expectancy can be affected, so if you notice any type of symptom that you believe may be related to heart disease (no matter your cat's age), it is key to take your kitty to the veterinarian as soon as possible. Like they say, it is better to be safe than sorry!
Congestive heart failure can occur if your cat's heart isn't pumping enough blood to other parts of their body, causing fluid to back up in the lungs. In later stages, your cat will show obvious difficulty with breathing due to this excess fluid. If you notice your feline friend in any type of respiratory distress, it's essential that you seek veterinary care right away.
A wide range of medical conditions can develop into feline congestive heart failure, including thyroid disease, high blood pressure, heartworm disease, anemia, tumors, and birth defects. But the leading cause is HCM. In this instance, the ventricle walls become so thick that the heart's functions are severely compromised. This results in a buildup of fluid in the left atrium, which forces fluid back into the lungs.
Just like with people, heart disease in cats can be the "silent killer." Too often, HCM and congestive heart failure are in the late stages by the time our feline friends finally start showing the clinical signs.
The two most significant symptoms of heart problems in cats are troubled breathing and difficulty walking, particularly weakness or paralysis of the hind legs. The respiratory distress is due to fluid buildup, of course. Watch for rapid, labored, or open-mouthed breathing.
The hind-leg weakness or paralysis is probably the result of a blood clot. With HCM and congestive heart failure, blood clots often form at the base of the aorta, cutting off the blood supply to the hind legs. If you notice either of these cat heart disease symptoms, seek emergency care for your furry loved one.
There are other, less obvious symptoms you can be on the lookout for, too. These symptoms on their own may not indicate any trouble with your kitty's ticker, but always let your veterinarian know if you observe:
Unlike with dogs, coughing in cats with heart disease is not a prevalent symptom. If your feline is coughing often, this could indicate another health issue, such as asthma or allergies, so it is important to take your four-legged friend to their veterinarian for a check-up.
Your veterinarian will probably begin by measuring your pal's blood pressure and taking blood and urine samples to check for anemia and thyroid problems. With heart disorders, you always want to rule out lesser conditions first. Also, since HCM and congestive heart failure are incurable, identifying any underlying contributors can help manage the disease.
Your veterinarian will also listen to your cat's heart with a stethoscope. Heart murmurs, abnormalities in heart rate, and cardiac rhythm disturbances can be early signs of more serious conditions. Your cat may also need special tests, such as a:
With HCM and congestive heart failure, the right treatment plan can help prolong your cat's life and ensure that their time with you is as comfy as possible.
If your cat has severe congestive heart failure, they may need to be hospitalized, receive oxygen treatments, or have their excess fluid drained with a catheter. Once your cat is stable, or if their condition isn't as critical to begin with, your veterinarian will prescribe medications to address their symptoms.
Remember, HCM and congestive heart failure are progressive, so your pal's treatment plan may change over time. Common medications include:
The most important thing you can do to help protect your cat against heart disease is to schedule regular wellness visits. Most veterinarians want to see young and middle-aged cats annually, and senior cats may need more frequent check-ups if heart disease is a concern.
In terms of diet, amino acid deficiency can lead to HCM, so try giving your feline friend a human-grade, meat-based, low-sodium diet that skips the unnecessary grains and fillers often found in cat food. Regular exercise is important, too, and sometimes gets overlooked with cats.
Finally, try to keep your little buddy's life as stress-free as possible. Make sure your cat always has a quiet, relaxing retreat away from children and other pets, and shower them with extra affection and reassurance any time your regular routine changes.
The information presented in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and does not constitute or substitute for the advice of your veterinarian.